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Riding until the diff blows up, is just silly.
You've narrowed it down to the diff, so I'd take it back out and reassess.
How did you remove/replace the bearings, press or hammer?
When the new bearings were fitted, were they damaged by pressing/hammering on the wrong part of the bearing. This will damage a new bearing quick smart.
Are the pinion bearings seated correctly? This will effect the gear tooth contact.
Without knowing your mechanical back ground, I might be telling you how to suck eggs.:)
 

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Had to stop the video halfway through. I couldn't stand the noise. NOT NORMAL!
Sounds like the pinion to crown wheel mesh is way to deep.
Is there any chance you mixed the carrier bearing shims around? This would possibly send the crown wheel deeper into mesh.
You need to also check the backlash of the gears. There is a special tool for that. It's easy to make though.
Do you have a workshop manual?
 

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I wouldn't think you'd need to re-measure shims just replacing bearings.
If you were changing gears or swapping out a cracked case, then yes I would expect to have to change shims.
Double check that all the bearings are seated the whole way home.
 

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If the cases are ok, then just change the gears, but do both.
The crown wheel teeth may look fine to the naked eye, but they will have a wear pattern in them.
If you reuse the crown wheel, you'll have trouble getting a good tooth mesh.
 

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I wouldn't assume the the new pinion will use the old shim, but it probably will. You'll need to follow the measuring procedure in the manual to determine that and start from there.
Ordering 4x .02mm shims is a good idea and will at least give you something to work with.
 

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Now's your chance to put things right.
I'd reuse the factory shims in their original location to start with and adjust from there.
You mentioned about replacing the bearings before, I'm assuming you've replaced the pinions needle bearing?
If you had and then run it with the old worn pinion, then that needle bearing is probably damaged, so I'd replace it again.
You stated that you have a workshop manual, so just simply follow the procedure and you should be fine.
One last thing, think clean, clean, clean when you do the work.
I am a little curious as to the low km's for the diff. My 2013 Outty has almost 20,000km and no sign of diff failure at this stage.
Of coarse, now that I've said that.........
 
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